- "GeoJSON is an open standard format designed for representing simple geographical features, along with their non-spatial attributes. It is based on the JSON format."
- GIS -- geographical information standard
- "GML -- geography markup language is the XML grammar defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) to express geographical features."
- "PostGIS is an open source software program that adds support for geographic objects to the PostgreSQL object-relational database."