STL containers

Containers replicate structures very commonly used in programming: dynamic arrays (vector), queues (queue), stacks (stack), heaps (priority_queue), linked lists (list), trees (set), associative arrays (map)...

http://www.cplusplus.com/reference/stl/

Sequence containers

vector list deque array forward_list

Modifying a vector potentially invalidates all existing iterators. And inserting an element can cause the whole container to be reallocated (here be dragons!)

deque is not guaranteed to store all its elements in contiguous storage locations but has efficient insertion and deletion of elements at the beginning and end of a sequence. Adding to a deque doesn't invalidate existing iterators.

Unlike the other standard containers, array has a fixed size, and also doesn't have resize/reserve/capacity/shrink_to_fit methods.

forward_list is a sequence container that allows constant time insert and erase operations anywhere within the sequence. It has been designed with efficiency in mind. By design, it is as efficient as a simple handwritten C-style singly-linked list, and in fact is the only standard container to deliberately lack a size member.

Container adapters

stack queue priority_queue

By default, if no container class is specified for a particular priority_queue class instantiation, the standard container vector is used. priority_queue is a heap

Associative containers

set map multiset multimap

multiset, set and map are typically implemented as binary search trees.

map is generally slower than unordered_map containers to access individual elements by their key, but it allows the direct iteration on subsets based on their order.

Unordered associative containers

unordered_multiset unordered_map unordered_multimap unordered_set

unordered_set is faster than set to access individual elements by their keys.

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